Saturday, November 28, 2009
Friday, November 27, 2009
Science & Technology Libraries, 25(3), 105-116.
The article focuses on weblogs as tools for project management and as educational tools for reference and public service librarians. Reichardt and Harder chart the rise of weblogs from the mid nineties to their current use as social networking tools (focusing on weblogs automatic archiving tool as a way to streamline work). One issue raised by the article was attempts to utilize weblogs as tools to help librarians troubleshoot student problems and field reference questions. I thought the use of RSS feeds on student websites would be an interesting way to find up-to-date reference questions, but like the use of IM Ask-a-librarian services it all comes down to how much staff and time you have to answer questions promptly, especially at a large research university.
Charles Allan, "Using a wiki to manage a library instruction program: Sharing knowledge to better serve patrons"
C&RL News, April 2007 Vol. 68, No. 4
Allan also focuses on how online tools-use of wikis- streamline workflow and enhance project collaboration. The article goes further to instruct librarians how to utilize wikis for library instruction purposes; using wikis to provide information on how to search for resources on a library website and keep professor up to date on library technology. The author highlights how wikis can be used to store pertinent information over several semesters for (incoming) students.
Xan Arch, "Creating the academic library folksonomy: Put social tagging to work at your institution" C&RL News, February 2007 Vol. 68, No. 2
Xan's article focuses on the use of tags to find scholarly literature and uses del.ic.oius, Cite-u-Like and Connotea as examples of use of scholarly tagging. The article also gives tips on how to create content-consulting with subject specialist to create tags for the information. The article also highlights a problem in using tagging for scholarly research, namely the use of controlled vocabulary (use of lii.org) vs. user folksonomies. I think the use of both would be beneficial to the library-user definitions may vary greatly from those of the "experts"-bibliographers, librarians and subject specialists.
Jimmy Wales: “How a ragtag band created Wikipedia”
Goals of wikipedia: Free encyclopedia. Has free licensing model-Wales believes free licensing is cost-effective. Biggest languages German, Japanese, French. 1/3 of traffic to English language wikipedia. According to Wales, Wikipedia is more popular than the NYTimes, what does this say about where people get their information? The video reminds me of a debate I had with a chemistry major as an undergraduate. She espoused the idea that wikipedia was a great way to find information and was sanctioned by her professors as an adequate source. As someone in the humanities with a background in journalism, disagreed, namely because of issues with factual information on the site (anyone can edit). As far as citation of scholarly sources go, I think the schism is going to be between the "hard" science and social sciences.
Wales cites a major problem with Wikipedia-vandalism as a barrier to quality control. Wales cites a "neutrality policy" for wikipedia editors, but I wonder whether the ability to write factual entries suffers.
Wednesday, November 25, 2009
Sunday, November 22, 2009
The article describes the evolution of DLI-1 and DLI-2 projects through federal funding initiatives, and problems in information retrieval (heterogenous databases, OAI, hidden digital sources) that have faced such projects. Specialists have sought to transform digital collections into digital libraries that also have the tools that enable users to successfully retrieve information and navigate the libraries. The projects varied-focusing on interoperability among heterogenous libraries, digital object technology, documentation, processing and indexing, and integrated software.
Paepcke, A. et al. (July/August 2005). Dewey meets Turing: librarians, computer scientists and the digital libraries initiative. D-Lib Magazine. 11(7/8).
The author highlights the role that DLI had in forming a partnership between computer scientists and librarians. At the beginning of the relationship, both believed the relationship would give them something they needed: computer scientists thought of it as a way to validate their research, librarians, who saw more funds going into science and technology, a way to access much needed funds.
The increasing importance of the WWW, brought a downside-publishers became interested in commercialization of the resources, which led to restriction to information that both groups though would remain free to access. This restricted scholarly input and communication and still remains a major issue. Two of my papers in Understanding Info focused on copyright, intellectual property law and scholarly publishing and it is astonishing to see how much commercialization by publishers has affected patrons access to resources.
Lynch, Clifford A. "Institutional Repositories: Essential Infrastructure for Scholarship in the Digital Age" ARL, no. 226 (February 2003): 1-7.
Lynch focuses on the development of institutional repositories and their effects on scholarly communication. He highlights OAI in decreasing price barriers and uses D-Lib (developed by MIT) as in example of a successful institutional repository. Unlike the other articles, Lynch also devotes a section to potential problems to look out for in developing an institutional repository-namely the creation of administrative policy that determines how and when people can publish their research. The author also brings into focus budgetary concerns, such as planning for long-term preservation and making sure their is money allotted for the repository so scholars can still access it.
Monday, November 16, 2009
Friday, November 13, 2009
Could not access article through Blackboard, Google Scholar, or PittCat.
Current Developments and Future Trends for the OAI Protocol for Metadata
OAI-PMH was created to increase interoperability of metadata. First formatted fore e-print archives, it quickly gained use in museums and libraries, which used OAI-PMH for metadata harvesting. Now, Open access systems such as D-Space and Contentdm (OCLC) package OAI with their products. The Protocol of Metadata Harvesting works by faciliating different types of metadata based on common standards, such as HTML or Dublin Core.
MICHAEL K. BERGMAN, “The Deep Web: Surfacing Hidden Value”
The article focuses on the "deep web" online sources and sites whose information is only accessible by direct query. One caveat of the deep web is that many web search engines do not have the capability to successfully retrieve information from these sites. Another problem is that answers can only be retrieved one at a time.
Deep web documents are 27% less sizable than surface web documents, but have a greater diversity of web sources.
Sunday, November 8, 2009
Friday, November 6, 2009
XML is a subset of SGTML. Unlike other markup languages, XML indetifies every part of a document. XML operates on the foundation that documents are a series of entities and each entitie contains one or more "logical elements." Each of the elements has attributes. "XML provides a formal syntax for describing the relationships between the entities, elements and attributes that make up an XML document, which can be used to tell the computer how it can recognize the component parts of each document."
Uche Ogbuji. A survey of XML standards: Part 1. January 2004.
The document consist of a brief history of XML (start in Unicode) and provides several links to XML tutorials.
Extending your Markup: a XML tutorial by Andre Bergholz
Good XML documents start with a prologue and contain one element.
DTD-defines the structure of XML documents. DTD lets a user specify the tags used, order of tags, and the attributes associated with each tag.
Developments in XML: Resource Description Framework (RDF)-integrates metadata activities.
Document Object Model (DOM)-allows programs to access and update content.
XML Schema Tutorial
XML Schema -and XML alternative to DTD. Language known as XSD.
Saturday, October 24, 2009
Friday, October 23, 2009
HTML Cheatsheet -
This site, by Webmonkey, has been around for awhile-at least 10 years. It is similar to the W3 site, featuring HTML tags, but is a more compact, less extensive guide.
W3 School Cascading Style Sheet Tutorial:
Another W3 page-this one features a tutorial on CSS.
Goans, D., Leach, G., & Vogel, T. M. (2006). Beyond HTML: Developing and re-imagining library web guides in a content management system.
This paper evaluates the use of CSS and tagging in content management systems, describing problems and solutions to technological and communications problems with software and library staff.
Friday, October 16, 2009
Thursday, October 15, 2009
"How Internet Infrastructure Works"
The article discussed computer network hierarchy and how the different levels of the hierarchy enabled accessed to the web.
"When you use the Web or send an e-mail message, you use a domain name to do it. For example, the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) "http://www.howstuffworks.com" contains the domain name howstuffworks.com. So does this e-mail address: email@example.com. Every time you use a domain name, you use the Internet's DNS servers to translate the human-readable domain name into the machine-readable IP address."
"Dismantling Integrated Library Systems"
The article highlights problems vendors and libraries have over adapting existing Integrated Library Systems to reflect the growing use of internet resources by patrons. The author that interoperabilty-vendors and librarians joining forces to provide products that maximize access for users-is the only way to go. Difficulty integrating (and possibly prohibitive cost) standalone models is discussed. Also makes the argument that working Open Source System wouldn't decrease cost, just move the money to maintaining the software and system.
See: XML, OHI-PMH
"Sergey Brin and Larry Page: Inside the Google machine"
Google founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page discuss how Google works. What was interesting about the lecture was the map that showed which countries used Google for queries the most. The lack of usage in Africa highlights the need to provide access and resources to enable communications and networking on the continent.
Tuesday, October 13, 2009
LT Create Account
LT Add Books
LT Create a Collection
LT How to Catalog and Search Your Books
Friday, October 2, 2009
LANs differ from WANs due to their high data transfer rate, local area of operation, do not need to lease telecommunication lines.
Ex. Ethernet, WiFi
TCP/IP protocol used.
Fiber optic cable used for high bandwidth.
LANs use spanning tree protocol to avoid loops and use VLANs to segregate traffic.
VLAN-a group of hosts with common requirements that communicate like they were attached to a broadcast domain-does not depend on location.
Group of interconnected computers
The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) funded the design of the "Advanced Research Projects Agency Network" (ARPANET) for the United States Department of Defense-first network of computers.
Networks are classified by the software that connects them (ex LAN).
Wireless LANs use infrared signals or radio waves to transmit.
Types of wired technologies:
Twisted-Pair Wire - used medium telecommunication.
Coaxial Cable – used for cable television systems, office buildings, and other worksites for local area networks.
Fiber Optics – These cables consist of one or more thin filaments of glass fiber wrapped in a protective layer. It transmits light which can travel over long distance and higher bandwidths.
Terrestrial Microwave – Terrestrial microwaves use Earth-based transmitter and receiver. The equipment look similar to satellite dishes. Terrestrial microwaves use low-gigahertz range, which limits all communications to line-of-sight. Path between relay stations spaced approx. 30 miles apart. Microwave antennas are usually placed on top of buildings, towers, hills, and mountain peaks.
Cellular and PCS Systems
Bluetooth – A short range wireless technology. Operate at approx. 1Mbps with range from 10 to 100 meters. Bluetooth is an open wireless protocol for data exchange over short distances.
The Wireless Web – The wireless ex. cellular phones, pagers,PDAs.
Vary in size (LAN, SAN, WAN, VPN)
Internetwork-two or more networks linked.
Intranet-set of networks that use Internet Protocol
Extranet-limited to one network.
Network card, repeater,hubs,bridge.
*"A network bridge connects multiple network segments at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Bridges do not promiscuously copy traffic to all ports, as hubs do, but learn which MAC addresses are reachable through specific ports. Once the bridge associates a port and an address, it will send traffic for that address only to that port. Bridges do send broadcasts to all ports except the one on which the broadcast was received."
Local ,remote, and wireless bridges.
"Management of RFID in Libraries"
The article covers the growing use of radio frequency identifiers in libraries. There are two types of RFID with several uses; the one used most by libraries is a short frequency version. RFIDs enable quick checkout-on the negative side, the frequency can easily be interfered with and librarians are wary about privacy concerns and staff "obsolescence."
Saturday, September 26, 2009
Friday, September 25, 2009
I wonder if any professors have had a problem with having their videos removed?
Also known as source coding.
Encoding information using fewer bits (or other units) than unencoded representation.
Source coding only works if both the sender and receiver understand the code.
Helps reduce cost assoc. with hard disk space and transmission bandwith.
Probs: compressed data needs to be decompressed to be used, need storage space, expensive equipment, distortion.
Lossless versus lossy compression
Exploits statistical redundancy. Lossless compression algorhythyms fan fail to suppress some files if a pattern is not recognized.
Lossy-aka perceptual encoding.
Application-optimizes disk space in office computers.
In lossy audio compression, psycoacoustics are used to remove nonaudible (less audible) components of a signal.
Lossless data compression systems can be described as a four-step model; lossy has even more, including prediction,frequency, transformation, and quantization.
Lempel-Ziv (LZ) compression methods are the most popular algorhythms for lossless storage.
DEFLATE-variation on LZ which is optimized for decompression speed and compression ratio-compression can be slow.
LZW-LZ Welch is used for GIF.
LZRenau-for Xip methods.
Best compressors-probalisitc models.
"Data Compression Basics"-covers run-length encoding and gives more examples of compression.
The article focuses on a massive project undertaken by Pitts DRL to combine over 20 photo collections from Carnegie Museum of Art and the Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania. The article covers communication and selection challenges which encompass a project undertaken by several different organizations with different goals of what the project should accomplish. A document was created to determine what should go into the collection based characteristics such as size, format and condition. Standards were set to establish minimum image quality. Generic copyright ws chosen. To prevent overlap of images, subject headings were used. Split collections still remain a problem and plans are being made for collaboration between organizations.
Metadata challenges were met by using Dublin Core characteristics and choosing a catalog to group the images.
"YouTube and Libraries"
The article focuses on utilizing YouTube for distance learning, providing access to classes.
Friday, September 18, 2009
-integrated collection of related records or files consolidated into a coomon pool that provides data for applications.
Can be classified by types of documents-bibliographic, full-text, numeric, images.
Data in a database is organized by a database model. Most common:relational model. Also:hierarchial model,network model.
On-line Transaction Processing Systems
Document-oriented, XML,knowledge bases, frame databases
Not all databases need a database schema.
Rise of general purpose databases
Object database managment system-stores language objects natively without using a separate data definition language w/o using a separate storage schema.
Database Management Systems:
DBMS-software that organizes the storage of data. Characterized by type of database model they support.
Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)
Information content of database represented one way.
ODBMS differs in that it sores explicit pointers between related tables.
Types of DBMS packages
(Operational database) Subject-area databases
Analytical database-stores data and information extracted from selected operational and external databases.
Data warehouse-stores data from current and previous years that has been extracted from the various operational databases of an org.
Distributed database-local work groups and departments at regional offices.
End-user database-data files developed by end-users at their workstations.
External database-privately owned, cost.
Other types: Hypermedia, navigational,in-memory,document-oriented databses, real-time
Post-relational database models
Object database models
Indexing-allows a set of table rows matching criterion to be quickly located.
Locking-how a database handles multiple operations.
API-retrieves info stored.
"Introduction to Metadata"
Metadata-data about data. All information structures have content, context and structure.
Library metadata includes indexes, abstracts, bibiliographic records.
Archival and manuscript metadata- accession records, finding aids, cataloging records
Rise of user generated metadata
Pros, data created to meet specific needs.
Cons, quality control, trustworthiness
"An Overview of the Dublin Core Data Model"
DCMI-effort to create interdisciplinary agreement for discovery -oriented description of resources in an electronic environment.
Monday, September 14, 2009
Friday, September 11, 2009
A few questions I had while reading:
Do shared systems really minimize cost? Wouldn't the cost of the program/system be prohibitive to some libraries?
30 years ago each computers were massive and each one ran a different operating system. Bell Labs created UNIX, an operating system which was written in C programming language instead of assembly code and had the ability to recycle code.
Importance of code recycling-up until the creation of UNIX,each computer system was written in a code developed for that one system. UNIX only needed a kernel of that code. With the kernel as a base for UNIX, developers could create a system that ran on may types of hardware,
Probs with early UNIX- large environments with mainframes and minicomputers (PC microcomputer) in an academic, gov't or corporate setting. UNIX not free, also very slow, so users tended to use other systems.
Created by Linus Torvalds-wanted to get UNIX on PC. Goal-to have a free system that was compliant with UNIX.
Now-to make Linux more user-friendly and to make the switch less jarring, user interface had been added , compatability with MS office applications.
Programmer lead maturation of code. Author's opinion-open source more flexible and a better quality than commercial software, b/c more people have tested it and troubleshot its problems.
Other open source initiatives:
SAMBA-reverse engineering of the Server Message Block (SMB)/Common Internet File System (CIFS) protocol used for file and print serving on PC related machines.
Apache HTTP-runs on UNIX.
Myriad of Linux options-anyone can create a code. Sometimes overwhelming to look through.
Some still consider it harder to use than Mac OS or MS Windows.
Trustworthiness-where does code come from?
Linux and GNU
Linux is based on GNU tools (GNU is not UNIX)
GNU tools are open source
* The Linux kernel is not part of the GNU project but uses same license as GNU software. Lots of utilities and tools are taken from GNU. Some argue system should be named GNU/Linux.
Mac OS X
First Introduced in 1999, Descendant of NEXTSTEP
Darwin major part of Mac OS X, has incorporated a lot of open source software (GNU tools,Apache, SAMBA).
Darwin runs on PC and x86 platforms. Can build a kernel that combines both platforms.
Mac OS X Software layers:
Application Services JRE
Core Services JVM
Hardware, Open Firmware, Bootloader
XNU based on Mach. Mach responsible for things such as:protected memory, virtual memory management and kernel debugging support.
BSD-responsible for things such as-firewall, user IDs, basic security policies.
I/O-Power management, device stacking etc. Uses C++.
"An Update on the Windows Roadmap"
Basically a letter responding to customer concerns over the switch from Microsoft XP to Vista. Message board responses centered around whether Vista was a step up from XP or just a cleaned up version of XP with a new name.
Wednesday, September 9, 2009
Tuesday, September 8, 2009
Components attached to motherboard
CPU-the "brain" of the computer, allows computers to function, performs calculations.
Chipset-acts as a facilitator-"mediates" communication between CPU and other system compents, including main memory.
RAM-stores applications and running OS.
BIOS-Basic Input Output System handles boot firmware, tasks are handled by operating system drivers.
About boot firmware. About operating system drivers.
Internal Buses-connect CPU to some internal components and expansion cards for graphics and sound.
Current Internal Buses include:
The northbridge memory controller, for RAM and PCI Express.
PCI Express - expansion for graphics and physics processors and high-end network interfaces
External Bus Controllers-supoprt ports for external peripherals. Ports may be controlled directly by the southbridge I/O controller or based on expansion cards attached to the motherboard through the PCI bus.
Includes powercord, switch, cooling fan. Supplies power to motherboard and internal disk drives.
Video display controller
Produces output for computer montior. Either built into motherboard or attached in its own separate slot as a graphics card.
Removable data devices
CD, DVD, Blu-Ray, Floppy disk (mainly used now for loading RAID drivers), USB, tape drive.
Hard disk-medium term storage
Solid-state drive-no moving parts, stores data in a digital format.
RAID array controller-device that manages several internal or external hard disk in order to achieve performance or reliability improvement in a RAID array.
Sound card- allows audio.
Other peripherals include: text input devics, pointing devices, gaming devices, impage and video input devices, audio input devices.
"Moores Law" notes
Focuses on semi-conductor units and the amount of memory they are able to store, the rate of increase in the amount that they are able to store. Density of components.
Other laws include: transistors per intergrated circuit, densisity at miminum cost per transistor.
Moore's law is more like a business model that an actual "hard science" law. It monitors the the increase of transistor count in the chips. Says it occurs at a fixed rate.
The Great Moore's Law Compensator (TGMLC)-also refered to as bloat describes computer softwar aquiring enough bloat to offset performance gains (more semi-conductor chips might slow performance rather than enhance it). The video summarizes this.
Thursday, September 3, 2009
Is there a difference in formatting for different user groups (students/casual users)?
What would the effect of a "system of micropayments" have on intellectual property claims?
Concerning the creation of microcontent ie blogs. What would happen if two people posted similar ideas. How would an intellectual property dispute be resolved?
Do thesis and papers published on blogs get a thorough amount of peer review?
With the trend of e-books. I see a problem of accessability. I think this is highlighted by Amazon's recent removal of 1984 from its e-book list due to copyright issues (http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/18/technology/companies/18amazon.html?_r=2). Who controls access to content? How are legal parameters for online resources established. People lost class notes they were recording on Kindle. Where are the lines for intellectual property drawn?
How will the increase in OA decrease financial strain on libraries?
How were upgrades prioritized? Which projects were put on hold or scrapped?
Instead of banning public patrons laptops, wouldn't allowing personal laptops decrease the traffic for academic users?
The author says students are underprepared and lack good skills to operate in "an information technology intensive culture." Are there statistics on this, what skills does the author deem necessary?
Increased access due to fluidity of mobile sources (laptops, phones) and lack of format-dependence. Changes who and how content is created and utilized.
Shifts in publication. Trend toward e-publication creating a more proactive consumer group (ex. medical faculty self-publishing online instead of peer reviewed hard copy journals).
Determining ownership (intellectual property) trend shifting to individual creation of micro-content. Shift to consumers determining what content they get.
Determining authenticity in a fluid , online enviroment.
Shift toward "social publishing"-content created to foster a sense of community. Increase of blogs as factual evidence, less biased sources of news (pg. 7)
Influence on academics and academic libraries:
ARL libraries spending an increasing amount on e-aquisitions, the creation and maintenance of digital resources/databases (ie digital assets).
Lied Library @ Four Years: Technology Never Stands Still
Focus on resource management and accessabilty in an academic library
Questions of userabilty and efficiency for patrons (minimizing impact of installation schedule to make sure library resources and computers were available for patrons while performing upgrades). Facilitating data migration from old PCs to new.
Combining databases (student info system/library card system) to streamline records management.
Computer access and restriction: managing a "finite resource"
Lied-laptop check out, increase hotjacks, installing more fixed PCs. Restricting use of laptops to UNLV staff and students, restricting use to UNLV for high traffic, high need times (one assumes, mid-terms and finals).
Computer function maintained by Deepfreeze
Space management and utilization
Lied issue: growth of library systems staff, workspace needed, airconditioning problems in central computer room.
Security (preventing theft), malicious software and adware
Solutions-Deepfreeze, Packeter PacketShaper, Ad-Adware
Equipment malfunction (batteries expiring earlier than usual due to temperature.
Information Literacy and Information Technology Literacy
Technology education on par with technological growth. Educating patrons on tool use but also on how tech and info systems work.