Saturday, September 26, 2009

Assigment 3 URL

Friday, September 25, 2009

9/29 Reading Response Comments

I responded to Tim's blog and M. Delie's blog.

9/29 Muddiest Point

In the "YouTube and Libraries" article, the author states that anything can be uploaded to YouTube. This is not the case, there are image restrictions and videos can be removed due to (perceived) violation of copyright, or..if the video is not made private, by complete strangers who don't necessarily like what is posted.

I wonder if any professors have had a problem with having their videos removed?

9/29 Notes Multimedia Representation and Storage

"Data Compression"
Also known as source coding.
Encoding information using fewer bits (or other units) than unencoded representation.
Source coding only works if both the sender and receiver understand the code.

Helps reduce cost assoc. with hard disk space and transmission bandwith.
Probs: compressed data needs to be decompressed to be used, need storage space, expensive equipment, distortion.

Lossless versus lossy compression
Exploits statistical redundancy. Lossless compression algorhythyms fan fail to suppress some files if a pattern is not recognized.

Lossy-aka perceptual encoding.
Lossless 25.888888888
Compressed: 29[9]8
Lossy: 26

Application-optimizes disk space in office computers.
In lossy audio compression, psycoacoustics are used to remove nonaudible (less audible) components of a signal.

Lossless data compression systems can be described as a four-step model; lossy has even more, including prediction,frequency, transformation, and quantization.
Lempel-Ziv (LZ) compression methods are the most popular algorhythms for lossless storage.
DEFLATE-variation on LZ which is optimized for decompression speed and compression ratio-compression can be slow.
LZW-LZ Welch is used for GIF.
LZRenau-for Xip methods.
Best compressors-probalisitc models.

"Data Compression Basics"-covers run-length encoding and gives more examples of compression.

"Imagining Pittsburgh"
The article focuses on a massive project undertaken by Pitts DRL to combine over 20 photo collections from Carnegie Museum of Art and the Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania. The article covers communication and selection challenges which encompass a project undertaken by several different organizations with different goals of what the project should accomplish. A document was created to determine what should go into the collection based characteristics such as size, format and condition. Standards were set to establish minimum image quality. Generic copyright ws chosen. To prevent overlap of images, subject headings were used. Split collections still remain a problem and plans are being made for collaboration between organizations.

Metadata challenges were met by using Dublin Core characteristics and choosing a catalog to group the images.

"YouTube and Libraries"
The article focuses on utilizing YouTube for distance learning, providing access to classes.

Friday, September 18, 2009

9/21 Comments

I responded to comments here and on Kristine Harveaux-Lundeen's blog.

9/21 Muddiest Point

Is Google a DBMS or RDBMS? I know that Google is trying to increase scalability, so could it be DBMS since that is one of their priorities?

9/21 Reading Notes

integrated collection of related records or files consolidated into a coomon pool that provides data for applications.
Can be classified by types of documents-bibliographic, full-text, numeric, images.

Data in a database is organized by a database model. Most common:relational model. Also:hierarchial model,network model.

On-line Transaction Processing Systems
Document-oriented, XML,knowledge bases, frame databases
Not all databases need a database schema.
Rise of general purpose databases

Object database managment system-stores language objects natively without using a separate data definition language w/o using a separate storage schema.

Database Management Systems:
DBMS-software that organizes the storage of data. Characterized by type of database model they support.

Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)
Information content of database represented one way.
ODBMS differs in that it sores explicit pointers between related tables.

RDBMS components:
Interface drivers
SQL Engine
Transaction Engine
Relational Engine
Storage Engine

ODMS components:
Language Drivers
Query Engine
Transaction Engines
Storage Engines

Types of DBMS packages
Database Development
"" Interrogation
"" Maintenance
Application Development

(Operational database) Subject-area databases
Customer databases
Personal databases
Inventory databases

Analytical database-stores data and information extracted from selected operational and external databases.

Data warehouse-stores data from current and previous years that has been extracted from the various operational databases of an org.

Distributed database-local work groups and departments at regional offices.

End-user database-data files developed by end-users at their workstations.

External database-privately owned, cost.
Other types: Hypermedia, navigational,in-memory,document-oriented databses, real-time

Post-relational database models
Object database models

Indexing-allows a set of table rows matching criterion to be quickly located.
Locking-how a database handles multiple operations.
API-retrieves info stored.

"Introduction to Metadata"
Metadata-data about data. All information structures have content, context and structure.
Library metadata includes indexes, abstracts, bibiliographic records.
Archival and manuscript metadata- accession records, finding aids, cataloging records

Rise of user generated metadata
Pros, data created to meet specific needs.
Cons, quality control, trustworthiness

"An Overview of the Dublin Core Data Model"
DCMI-effort to create interdisciplinary agreement for discovery -oriented description of resources in an electronic environment.

Monday, September 14, 2009

Flikr Project

Flikr project uploaded.

Friday, September 11, 2009

Comment on Week 3 Readings

I commented on Kristine Harveaux-Lundeen and Joshua Bullough's blogs.

9/15 Muddiest Points

Class question: would it be easier to type accents with a Dvorak or QWERTY keyboard?

A few questions I had while reading:
What's x86?
Do shared systems really minimize cost? Wouldn't the cost of the program/system be prohibitive to some libraries?

9/15 Reading Notes: Computer Software

"Introduction to Linux: A Hands on Guide"

30 years ago each computers were massive and each one ran a different operating system. Bell Labs created UNIX, an operating system which was written in C programming language instead of assembly code and had the ability to recycle code.

Importance of code recycling-up until the creation of UNIX,each computer system was written in a code developed for that one system. UNIX only needed a kernel of that code. With the kernel as a base for UNIX, developers could create a system that ran on may types of hardware,

Probs with early UNIX- large environments with mainframes and minicomputers (PC microcomputer) in an academic, gov't or corporate setting. UNIX not free, also very slow, so users tended to use other systems.

Created by Linus Torvalds-wanted to get UNIX on PC. Goal-to have a free system that was compliant with UNIX.
Now-to make Linux more user-friendly and to make the switch less jarring, user interface had been added , compatability with MS office applications.

Open Source
Programmer lead maturation of code. Author's opinion-open source more flexible and a better quality than commercial software, b/c more people have tested it and troubleshot its problems.

Other open source initiatives:
SAMBA-reverse engineering of the Server Message Block (SMB)/Common Internet File System (CIFS) protocol used for file and print serving on PC related machines.
Apache HTTP-runs on UNIX.

Linux Cons
Myriad of Linux options-anyone can create a code. Sometimes overwhelming to look through.
Some still consider it harder to use than Mac OS or MS Windows.
Trustworthiness-where does code come from?

Linux and GNU
Linux is based on GNU tools (GNU is not UNIX)
GNU tools are open source

* The Linux kernel is not part of the GNU project but uses same license as GNU software. Lots of utilities and tools are taken from GNU. Some argue system should be named GNU/Linux.

Mac OS X
First Introduced in 1999, Descendant of NEXTSTEP
Darwin major part of Mac OS X, has incorporated a lot of open source software (GNU tools,Apache, SAMBA).
Darwin runs on PC and x86 platforms. Can build a kernel that combines both platforms.
GNU-Darwin Project

Mac OS X Software layers:
Application Environments
Application Services JRE
Core Services JVM
Hardware, Open Firmware, Bootloader

*XNU-the kernel
XNU based on Mach. Mach responsible for things such as:protected memory, virtual memory management and kernel debugging support.

BSD-responsible for things such as-firewall, user IDs, basic security policies.
I/O-Power management, device stacking etc. Uses C++.

"An Update on the Windows Roadmap"
Basically a letter responding to customer concerns over the switch from Microsoft XP to Vista. Message board responses centered around whether Vista was a step up from XP or just a cleaned up version of XP with a new name.

Wednesday, September 9, 2009

91/ and 9/8 Comments

I posted to Kristin Harveau's and Jon Webster's blogs on 9/1 . I posted to Brandon Locke's and M. Delie's blogs for 9/8.

9/8 Muddiest Points

The reading was pretty straightforward, mostly definitions. I have no MPs for this reading.

Tuesday, September 8, 2009

9/8 Reading Notes

"Personal Computer Hardware" notes

Components attached to motherboard
CPU-the "brain" of the computer, allows computers to function, performs calculations.
Chipset-acts as a facilitator-"mediates" communication between CPU and other system compents, including main memory.
RAM-stores applications and running OS.
BIOS-Basic Input Output System handles boot firmware, tasks are handled by operating system drivers.

About boot firmware. About operating system drivers.

Internal Buses-connect CPU to some internal components and expansion cards for graphics and sound.
Current Internal Buses include:
The northbridge memory controller, for RAM and PCI Express.
PCI Express - expansion for graphics and physics processors and high-end network interfaces

External Bus Controllers-supoprt ports for external peripherals. Ports may be controlled directly by the southbridge I/O controller or based on expansion cards attached to the motherboard through the PCI bus.

Power Supply
Includes powercord, switch, cooling fan. Supplies power to motherboard and internal disk drives.

Video display controller
Produces output for computer montior. Either built into motherboard or attached in its own separate slot as a graphics card.

Removable data devices
CD, DVD, Blu-Ray, Floppy disk (mainly used now for loading RAID drivers), USB, tape drive.

Internal Storage
Hard disk-medium term storage
Solid-state drive-no moving parts, stores data in a digital format.
RAID array controller-device that manages several internal or external hard disk in order to achieve performance or reliability improvement in a RAID array.

Sound card- allows audio.

Other peripherals include: text input devics, pointing devices, gaming devices, impage and video input devices, audio input devices.

"Moores Law" notes
Focuses on semi-conductor units and the amount of memory they are able to store, the rate of increase in the amount that they are able to store. Density of components.

Other laws include: transistors per intergrated circuit, densisity at miminum cost per transistor.
Moore's law is more like a business model that an actual "hard science" law. It monitors the the increase of transistor count in the chips. Says it occurs at a fixed rate.

The Great Moore's Law Compensator (TGMLC)-also refered to as bloat describes computer softwar aquiring enough bloat to offset performance gains (more semi-conductor chips might slow performance rather than enhance it). The video summarizes this.

Thursday, September 3, 2009

9/1 Readings Muddiest Points

Content Not Containers
Is there a difference in formatting for different user groups (students/casual users)?
What would the effect of a "system of micropayments" have on intellectual property claims?
Concerning the creation of microcontent ie blogs. What would happen if two people posted similar ideas. How would an intellectual property dispute be resolved?
Do thesis and papers published on blogs get a thorough amount of peer review?

With the trend of e-books. I see a problem of accessability. I think this is highlighted by Amazon's recent removal of 1984 from its e-book list due to copyright issues ( Who controls access to content? How are legal parameters for online resources established. People lost class notes they were recording on Kindle. Where are the lines for intellectual property drawn?

How will the increase in OA decrease financial strain on libraries?

Lied Library
How were upgrades prioritized? Which projects were put on hold or scrapped?
Instead of banning public patrons laptops, wouldn't allowing personal laptops decrease the traffic for academic users?

Information Literacy
The author says students are underprepared and lack good skills to operate in "an information technology intensive culture." Are there statistics on this, what skills does the author deem necessary?

9/1 Reading Notes

OCLC 2004 Information Format Trends Content, Not Container

Content Management:
Increased access due to fluidity of mobile sources (laptops, phones) and lack of format-dependence. Changes who and how content is created and utilized.

Shifts in publication. Trend toward e-publication creating a more proactive consumer group (ex. medical faculty self-publishing online instead of peer reviewed hard copy journals).

Determining ownership (intellectual property) trend shifting to individual creation of micro-content. Shift to consumers determining what content they get.

Determining authenticity in a fluid , online enviroment.

Shift toward "social publishing"-content created to foster a sense of community. Increase of blogs as factual evidence, less biased sources of news (pg. 7)

Influence on academics and academic libraries:
ARL libraries spending an increasing amount on e-aquisitions, the creation and maintenance of digital resources/databases (ie digital assets).

Lied Library @ Four Years: Technology Never Stands Still
Focus on resource management and accessabilty in an academic library
Questions of userabilty and efficiency for patrons (minimizing impact of installation schedule to make sure library resources and computers were available for patrons while performing upgrades). Facilitating data migration from old PCs to new.

Combining databases (student info system/library card system) to streamline records management.

Major issue:
Computer access and restriction: managing a "finite resource"
Lied-laptop check out, increase hotjacks, installing more fixed PCs. Restricting use of laptops to UNLV staff and students, restricting use to UNLV for high traffic, high need times (one assumes, mid-terms and finals).
Computer function maintained by Deepfreeze

Major issue:
Space management and utilization
Lied issue: growth of library systems staff, workspace needed, airconditioning problems in central computer room.

Major issue:
Security (preventing theft), malicious software and adware
Solutions-Deepfreeze, Packeter PacketShaper, Ad-Adware
Equipment malfunction (batteries expiring earlier than usual due to temperature.

Information Literacy and Information Technology Literacy
Major issues:
Technology education on par with technological growth. Educating patrons on tool use but also on how tech and info systems work.